A problem-oriented Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences of the University of Leiden (CML). It focuses on a series of environmental impact categories expressed in terms of emissions to the environment or resource use. It allows to establish an artificial monetary value (shadow price) for each unit of environmental impact and to compare the results for different environmental impact categories with each other.
CML and Eco-indicator 99 were the two LCA methods used in this study to assess the full environmental impacts of disposing of waste streams through a particular thermal treatment technology.
The CML impact categories used were: effects on the depletion of fossil fuel and raw materials; global warming; the ozone layer; human health; the health of freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems; smog; acid rain; and eutrophication (excessive algae growth).
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