Figures & Tables

Table 6: Summary of pre-treatment of waste when used in clinker kilns or in waste incinerators

Waste type Clinker kiln Waste incinerator
1. Solvents/ waste oils VOC emissions during storage, handling at pre-treatment site No pre-treatment
2.Sludge Drying with natural gas, including use of electricity No pre-treatment
3. Paint/ink Absorption in wood residue (sawdust) at pre-treatment site; VOC emissions during storage No pre-treatment
4. Fluff Electricity for grinding/milling Same as for clinker kilns
5. Filtercake No pre treatment No pre-treatment
Petcoke/ Coal Milling, grinding: energy use and emissions to air Not relevant
Raw meal Mining, transport and emission of particulates, energy for crushing, milling and other handling Not relevant
Supportive fuel Not relevant No pre-treatment

Source: TNO,  LCA of thermal treatment of waste streams in cement clinker kilns (2007)